The illegal trade in wildlife threatens the survival of many species and has devastating and wide ranging economic, social, and environmental consequences. Poaching and trafficking also finances corruption, undermines the rule of law and good governance, and drains States and communities of their natural capital and cultural heritage. Historically, efforts to prevent this trade have focused on efforts to restrict supply, for example through policies, regulations, legislation, and the effective enforcement of these various ‘societal controls’. More recently however, there has also been recognition of the need to complement this work through efforts to reduce consumer demand, using measures such as messaging to shape individual motivation, based on best practice in behavioural science. At the 17th Conference of Parties (J’burg, Sept 2016) to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES), a Resolution on Demand Reduction was adopted, recognising the importance of such well targeted, species-specific and evidence-based campaigns, that aim to engage key consumer groups and target the motivations for the demand, to change consumer choice and buyer behaviour.